使用AIDE做Linux高级入侵检测文件监控

Posted by Yancy on 2015-04-01

1、aide介绍

AIDE(Adevanced Intrusion Detection Environment,高级入侵检测环境)是个入侵检测工具,主要用途是检查文本的完整性。

AIDE能够构造一个指定文档的数据库,他使用aide.conf作为其配置文档。AIDE数据库能够保存文档的各种属性,包括:权限(permission)、索引节点序号(inode number)、所属用户(user)、所属用户组(group)、文档大小、最后修改时间(mtime)、创建时间(ctime)、最后访问时间(atime)、增加的大小连同连接数。AIDE还能够使用下列算法:sha1、md5、rmd160、tiger,以密文形式建立每个文档的校验码或散列号。

常见的入侵检测软件: tripwire–操作比较复杂,aide–用以代替tripwire,比较简单.

系统环境:

  RHEL 6.2 [2.6.32-220.el6.i686]

  软件环境:

2、aide安装 配置使用

yum rpm二进制安装

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yum -y install aide

我的配置文件

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mv /etc/aide.conf /etc/aide.conf.bak
vim /etc/aide.conf
# Example configuration file for AIDE.
@@define DBDIR /var/lib/aide #基准数据库目录
@@define LOGDIR /var/log/aide #日志目录
# The location of the database to be read.
database=file:@@{DBDIR}/aide.db.gz #基础数据库文件
# The location of the database to be written. #database_out=sql:host:port:database:login_name:passwd:table
#database_out=file:aide.db.new
database_out=file:@@{DBDIR}/aide.db.new.gz #更新数据库文件
# Whether to gzip the output to database
gzip_dbout=yes
# Default.
verbose=5
report_url=file:@@{LOGDIR}/aide.log
report_url=stdout
#report_url=stderr
#NOT IMPLEMENTED report_url=mailto:root@foo.com
#NOT IMPLEMENTED report_url=syslog:LOG_AUTH
# These are the default rules.
#
#p: permissions
#i: inode:
#n: number of links
#u: user
#g: group
#s: size
#b: block count
#m: mtime
#a: atime
#c: ctime
#S: check for growing size
#acl: Access Control Lists
#selinux SELinux security context
#xattrs: Extended file attributes
#md5: md5 checksum
#sha1: sha1 checksum
#sha256: sha256 checksum
#sha512: sha512 checksum
#rmd160: rmd160 checksum
#tiger: tiger checksum
#haval: haval checksum (MHASH only)
#gost: gost checksum (MHASH only)
#crc32: crc32 checksum (MHASH only)
#whirlpool: whirlpool checksum (MHASH only)
#R: p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+md5
#L: p+i+n+u+g+acl+selinux+xattrs
#E: Empty group
#>: Growing logfile p+u+g+i+n+S+acl+selinux+xattrs
R = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+md5
L = p+i+n+u+g+acl+selinux+xattrs
> = p+u+g+i+n+S+acl+selinux+xattrs
# You can create custom rules like this.
# With MHASH...
# ALLXTRAHASHES = sha1+rmd160+sha256+sha512+whirlpool+tiger+haval+gost+crc32
ALLXTRAHASHES = sha1+rmd160+sha256+sha512+tiger
# Everything but access time (Ie. all changes)
EVERYTHING = R+ALLXTRAHASHES
# Sane, with multiple hashes
# NORMAL = R+rmd160+sha256+whirlpool
NORMAL = R+rmd160+sha256
# For directories, don't bother doing hashes
DIR = p+i+n+u+g+acl+selinux+xattrs
# Access control only
PERMS = p+i+u+g+acl+selinux
# Logfile are special, in that they often change
LOG = >
# Just do md5 and sha256 hashes
LSPP = R+sha256
# Some files get updated automatically, so the inode/ctime/mtime change
# but we want to know when the data inside them changes
DATAONLY = p+n+u+g+s+acl+selinux+xattrs+md5+sha256+rmd160+tiger
# Next decide what directories/files you want in the database.
/boot NORMAL
/bin NORMAL
/sbin NORMAL
/lib NORMAL
/lib64 NORMAL
/opt NORMAL
/usr NORMAL
/root NORMAL
# These are too volatile
!/usr/src
!/usr/tmp
!/usr/share #通过文件路径前面加感叹号 ! 排除这个路径的监控,请自定义
# Check only permissions, inode, user and group for /etc, but
# cover some important files closely.
/etc PERMS
!/etc/mtab
# Ignore backup files
!/etc/.*~
/etc/exports NORMAL
/etc/fstab NORMAL
/etc/passwd NORMAL
/etc/group NORMAL
/etc/gshadow NORMAL
/etc/shadow NORMAL
/etc/security/opasswd NORMAL
/etc/hosts.allow NORMAL
/etc/hosts.deny NORMAL
/etc/sudoers NORMAL
/etc/skel NORMAL
/etc/logrotate.d NORMAL
/etc/resolv.conf DATAONLY
/etc/nscd.conf NORMAL
/etc/securetty NORMAL
# Shell/X starting files
/etc/profile NORMAL
/etc/bashrc NORMAL
/etc/bash_completion.d/ NORMAL
/etc/login.defs NORMAL
/etc/zprofile NORMAL
/etc/zshrc NORMAL
/etc/zlogin NORMAL
/etc/zlogout NORMAL
/etc/profile.d/ NORMAL
/etc/X11/ NORMAL
# Pkg manager
/etc/yum.conf NORMAL
/etc/yumex.conf NORMAL
/etc/yumex.profiles.conf NORMAL
/etc/yum/ NORMAL
/etc/yum.repos.d/ NORMAL
/var/log LOG
/var/run/utmp LOG
# This gets new/removes-old filenames daily
!/var/log/sa
# As we are checking it, we've truncated yesterdays size to zero.
!/var/log/aide.log
# LSPP rules...
# AIDE produces an audit record, so this becomes # /var/log/audit/ LSPP
/etc/audit/ LSPP
/etc/libaudit.conf LSPP
/usr/sbin/stunnel LSPP
/var/spool/at LSPP
/etc/at.allow LSPP
/etc/at.deny LSPP
/etc/cron.allow LSPP
/etc/cron.deny LSPP
/etc/cron.d/ LSPP
/etc/cron.daily/ LSPP
/etc/cron.hourly/ LSPP
/etc/cron.monthly/ LSPP
/etc/cron.weekly/ LSPP
/etc/crontab LSPP
/var/spool/cron/root LSPP
/etc/login.defs LSPP
/etc/securetty LSPP
/var/log/faillog LSPP
/var/log/lastlog LSPP
/etc/hosts LSPP
/etc/sysconfig LSPP
/etc/inittab LSPP
/etc/grub/ LSPP
/etc/rc.d LSPP
/etc/ld.so.conf LSPP
/etc/localtime LSPP
/etc/sysctl.conf LSPP
/etc/modprobe.conf LSPP
/etc/pam.d LSPP
/etc/security LSPP
/etc/aliases LSPP
/etc/postfix LSPP
/etc/ssh/sshd_config LSPP
/etc/ssh/ssh_config LSPP
/etc/stunnel LSPP
/etc/vsftpd.ftpusers LSPP
/etc/vsftpd LSPP
/etc/issue LSPP
/etc/issue.net LSPP
/etc/cups LSPP
# With AIDE's default verbosity level of 5, these would give lots of
# warnings upon tree traversal. It might change with future version.
#
#=/lost\+found DIR
#=/home DIR
# Ditto /var/log/sa reason...
!/var/log/and-httpd
# Admins dot files constantly change, just check perms
/root/\..* PERMS

下一步:

初始化监控数据库(这需要一些时间)

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/usr/sbin/aide -c /etc/aide.conf --init
```
把当前初始化的数据库作为开始的基础数据库
``` bash
cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz

如果是正常的改动 更新改动到基础数据库

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aide --update
cd /var/lib/aide/

覆盖替换旧的数据库

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mv aide.db.new.gz aide.db.gz

在终端中查看检测结果

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aide --check

检查文件改动 保存到文件

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aide --check --report=file:/tmp/aide-report-`date +%Y%m%d`.txt
```
定时任务执行aide检测报告和自动邮件发送aide检测报告(如果没有mail, yum install mail,还需要有本地邮件服务支持, yum install sendmail;/etc/init.d/sendmail start)
``` bash
crontab -e
00 02 * * * /usr/sbin/aide -C -V4 | /bin/mail -s "AIDE REPORT $(date +%Y%m%d)" root@localhost

5、参考